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  The importance of feedback Learning activities which promote reasoning and processing support the development of constructs. These constructs that students build have errors in them, missing facts and often overlook linkages. The huge importance of feedback in teaching and learning is in the identification of these problems with learner’s constructs, and the teacher-guided responses to mitigate for these errors and omissions.  
Facts are the building-blocks for constructs  Learners are bombarded by facts- facts about science, language, mathematical manipulations etc. Each learner forms linkages between these facts to form personal interpretations of what they have learned. These personal interpretations are their constructs. What does this mean?- ELEPHANTS SITS MARSHMALLOW SHOWDOWN IN THE POST Each individual word has a meaning- our brains can relate the word to a personal interpretation. The particular assemblage of words above however cannot be logically linked- we have no body of prior learning that provides us with a construct that enables us to see the assemblage of words as representative of a concept, process or model. Learners vary in the complexity and correctness of their constructs, both due to differences in the number and correctness of the facts and ideas they have learned, but also in regard of the linkages they have formed between them in the construction of their personal constructs. Reasoning leads to construct formation
Bloom’s taxonomy illustrates how learning can vary in complexity. The lower three tiers on the representation to the right are linked to reproduction tasks in the classroom- tasks in which students are required to learn facts. The upper three tiers are linked to reasoning tasks- activities in the classroom in which learners are required to reason with facts. They are required, through the learning activity, to process their knowledge. The importance of these approaches to learning is that they support the formation and testing of constructs. Petty (2009) makes it clear that, “differentiation requires that learners are set reasoning tasks, whatever their attainment”.
Understanding means, ‘linked with prior learning’ and not merely the ability to reproduce facts. Only reasoning tasks allow the creation of constructs and the development of so called deep learning.
Challenging goals, success criteria, active learning, recognition of effort and rich feedback What is learning?